The places where the greatest Russian poet lived are subject to particular attention. The distant domains of Pskov and Mikhailovskoye have become pilgrimage places for the admirers of the talent of Alexandre Pushkin in the same way as his burial in the monastery of Svyatogorsk.
His last home in St. Petersburg was also transformed into a museum apartment. Little by little, all the places where the poet spent time turned into a museum. This is the case of Trigorskoye, Petrovskoye, Boldino, Torzhok, and of course, Zakharovo, the cradle of his childhood, near Moscow.
The public did not understand the importance of Zakharovo at the end of the twentieth century. It was only in 1987 that the Museum-Reserve of History and Literature A.S. Pushkin (in Russian: государственный историко-литературный музей-заповедник а. С. Пушкина) lives during the day. It is located in two old properties of Zakharovo and Bolchie Vyazmy, 8km from each other.
These two buildings emphasize Pushkin’s childhood, the value of youth in general, and the invaluable role of the environment that surrounded and educated the future poet.
Open from 10 AM to 5 PM except for Monday and the last Friday of the month.
- Zakharovo mansion: 30 Rub
- The Park Territory: 250 RUB
- The Manor: 50 Rub
- The Bolchye Establishment
- Vyazemy: 50 Rub
- The Park Territory: 750 RUB
- The Manor exhibition: 600 RUB
- The collections of the dependencies: 300 RUB
In the XVII and XVIIIth centuries, the village of Zakharovo was the property of the Kamynins and Uruv princes. The mansion was built in the second half of the eighteenth century by the landowner, D.P. Savelov.
In 1781, it was acquired by the artillery captain I.Y. Tinkov. Then, in November 1804, the widow of Tinkov sold it to Maria Alekseevna Hannibal, “2nd rank captain of marine artillery”, wife of the son of Peter The Great, Ibrahim-Osp Hannibal grandmother of Alexandre Pushkin. Zakharovo’s bill of sale is at the Znoveligorod Museum.
From 1805 to 1810, every summer, the future poet was brought to his grandmother in Zakharovo. As the poet’s parents remind us, life in Zakharov changed a boy before being closed and shy.
The isolated rural atmosphere, outdoor games, unspoiled nature, the excitement of children’s imagination – all this aroused in it a great liveliness and excellent agility. Pushkin’s father and mother ignored him.
The owner of Zakharovo, M. A. Hannibal, exercised a significant influence on the education of his brilliant grandson. In these places, Pushkin discovered the beauty of Russian nature, peasant dances, heard folk songs, given the life of a wealthy and provincial nobility.
His vision of life was formed here, and he started writing his first poems, a preamble to his celebrity. Pushkin has also come here in the most challenging periods of his life.
A golden nanny
The nanny of Pushkin, Arina Rodionovna, knew the Russian world perfectly and transmitted it extremely original via sayings, proverbs, and fairy tales.
Arina knew most of the folk songs and epics of the time. We can say with confidence that he owes to his nanny the basics of his talent. After the departure of Pushkin for the Selo Tsarskoie High School in 1811, the village was sold to a family member, Kharitonia Ivanovna Kozlova, then, after his death, at A. A. Orlova.
In the twentieth century, the mansion moves from hand to hand, and unfortunately, the original house where Pushkin has passed his childhood has not been preserved. However, the new wooden building, erected on the foundations of the first, reproduces the same forms very precisely.
In the Soviet era, the house was used for various needs, including a school. In the late 1980s, the building was empty, and in 1993, he burned. The mansion was rebuilt identically for the 200th anniversary of the birth of Pushkin in 1999.
The name of Vyazema appears for the first time in documents of the 16th century. Under Ivan the terrible, Vyazmy was the last station in front of Moscow along the great road of Smolensk.
Then, in 1584, the village was given by the Tsar Fedor Ioannovich to his brother-in-law, Boris Godunov, who immediately undertook a large construction here. At the time of Godunov, there was also a wooden tower next to St. Nicholas Church. A wood wall with five towers surrounded all buildings. A ditch protected the walls of the fortress.
None of these structures, except for the temple of Peter and the Belfry, have survived. In 1694, Pierre I sold the estate to Prince Boris Golitsyn, who did not consider Vyazma as his primary domain, preferring Dubrovitsy. In the second half of the eighteenth century, Nikolai Mikhailovich Golitsyn (1729-1793), Boris’s great-grandson, undertook the palace’s construction and its outbuildings.
The structure of two wings ended in the early 1770s, and, in 1784, the House of the Palace was completed. Simultaneously at the construction of buildings, the park was arranged. In 1812, Mr. Kutuzov and later Napoleon stayed on the property.
In memory of these events, a commemorative plate has been installed in the field. In addition, V.Y. Bryusov, Leon Tolstoy, and Alexandre Pushkin (child) went several times here. Pushkin’s youngest brother, Nikolenka, is buried near the wall of the church.
Before the revolution, the Golitsin were owners of the estate. In 1917, the mansion was in a garden invaded by the vegetation.
In the Soviet era, more than a dozen institutions have succeeded one another, including an orphanage for street children, a school of paratroopers, a school of tanks, a breeding institute, and a printing factory.
In the late 1980s, local historians decided to make a folk museum before it became today.